The learner’s relationship with the system is much more direct than that of the author’s role. The system may or may not know who a learner is, but the learner will still need an authorization token weather he is accessing a maze anonymously or through a credentialed system. If the learner is accessing a maze from another system, we may not know what data they are arriving with, but it is critical to know in order to be able to maintain system interoperability.
The Experience API (xAPI) protocol defines the possible identifiers that can anticipate the payload we will receive from other xAPI compliance systems. The xAPI protocol uses the term actor because it is more widely applicable. When a user from another system, as depicted in Use Case 2 (Figure 4), per xAPI protocol, the incoming learner may be identified in one of three ways shown in Table 10.